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Urooncology Diseases and Treatments

1. Prostate cancer treatment method:

Prostate needle biopsy: Male patients are screened annually for prostate cancer, the occurrence of which increases after the age of 40, using digital rectal examination (DRE) and blood prostate specific antigen (PSA) level measurements. Patients with suspicious examination findings and/or PSA values are subject to multiple prostate needle biopsy under general anesthesia in the Same Day Surgery service (SDS).

Robotic Radical Prostatectomy: Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer as a result of pathologic examinations are treated by Robotic Radical Prostatectomy operation.

Open surgery: Open surgery can be used in patients who are not suitable for robotic surgery.

Hormone therapy (HT) and Radiation Therapy (RT): Hormone therapy (HT) and radiation therapy (RT) lead to successful results in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer or who are not suitable for surgery.

Other therapies: In widespread metastatic disease, surgical orchidectomy (removal of testicles) or medical (hormone therapy) castration and chemotherapy are used.

2. Bladder cancer:

In this type of cancer which is known to be closely related to smoking, the first sign is mostly urinary bleeding. Most of the bladder cancers are diagnosed at the early stage, and are inclined to reoccur frequently and to advance if not treated. In patients who apply with urinary bleeding, the urinary bladder is examined for tumor using cystoscopy.

Treatment method:

Transurethral Resection for Bladder Tumor (TUR-MB): If a tumor is detected, transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TUR-BT) is performed using endoscopy.
Chemotherapy: To prevent superficial bladder tumors, one-time chemotherapy drugs may be administered into the bladder as a complementary treatment.

Cystoscopy. According to pathology results, patients with tumors limited to the surface are checked once every 3 months using cystoscopy.

Radical Cystectomy: If muscle invasive carcinoma of the bladder is detected as a result of pathologic examinations, it may be necessary to remove the pelvic lymph nodes and to make a new bladder from the small intestine. Known as Radical Cystectomy, this operation can be performed using robotic or open surgery.

Other therapies: Patients who are not suitable for surgery should be treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT -CT). 

3. Testicular tumors

4. Kidney cancer

5. Adrenal gland tumors

6. Retroperitoneal tumors

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